How many valence electrons does Sodium have?
Are you a Chemistry student looking for the Sodium valence electrons and how to calculate it?
In this step by step guide, you will learn about Sodium, what valence electrons are, and how to calculate it from electronic configuration.
But before we start, lets take an overview of Sodium and its importance in chemistry!
What Is Sodium?
Sodium is among the first 20 elements among, and its atomic number is 11. This metallic element is delicate, silvery white, and extremely reactive in nature.
The alkali metal sodium is in the first group of the periodic table. It has numerous isotopes but only 23Na is stable.
Its interesting to know that Sodium is the sixth most prevalent element in the Earth’s crust. Yes! you can find it in many minerals such as feldspars, sodalite, and rock salt (NaCl).
Its diversity in natural occurrence is because sodium salts are very soluble in water, and have been extracted from the Earth’s minerals over the years by the action of water.
How Was Sodium Discovered?
The electrolysis of sodium hydroxide produced the first pure sample of sodium, discovered by the English chemist Humphry Davy in 1807.
Lye (sodium hydroxide) is a common and valuable alkali that you can use in soap making, while sodium chloride (common salt) is an agent for de-icing and a source of essential nutrients for animals, including humans.
Why is Sodium Important?
Sodium is super essential for both plants and animals. it is the predominant cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and hence its high ECF osmotic pressure and ECF compartment volume contributes to the overall ECF osmotic pressure and ECF compartment volume.
Hypernatremia is an increased sodium concentration, a condition which occurs when the amount of water in the ECF compartment is decreased. The ECF compartment will become smaller in an instance of ECF hypovolemia because of the loss of water and sodium from the ECF compartment.
The cell uses the sodium-potassium pump to extract three sodium ions from the cell for every two potassium ions that are added to the cell. Inside the cell, potassium is 40 times more concentrated than sodium, but outside the cell, sodium is only ten times more concentrated.
When the charge across the cell membrane is dissipated, nerve impulses (electrical action potentials) are sent; sodium is crucial to that process.
Sodium, an alkali metal in group 1 with atomic number 11, is one of the most reactive alkali metals.
Sodium, which has an atomic number of 11 and is in group 1, the highly reactive alkali metals. Due to its strong reactivity, sodium is not found in nature in its natural form. Instead, it is extracted from various chemicals (mostly from salts).
Now that we know how much sodium is utilized in the field of chemistry, we have solid information on its electrical characteristics, and that is why you are here. To fully understand this, you need to be familiar with these two words, so let’s get to it.
What Are Valence Electrons?
Electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom are referred to as valence electrons (i.e. in outermost orbital).
A neutral atom’s valence electrons are always definite, not able to be changed in any situation and may or may not be equal to its valency.
When forming a stable electronic configuration, the total number of electrons that an atom can lose, gain, or share are enough to satisfy the octet rule.
The valency of an atom might vary depending on various bonding processes in different compounds, or in chemical reactions.
How many electrons and protons has the atom of sodium(Na)?
If you are wondering, how many valence electrons does sodium have, its super important to know its structure.
The core of an atom is its center. The number of protons is the atomic number. In the nucleus are protons and neutrons.
The atomic number of sodium (Na) is 11 therefore the available protons are 11. And since its a neutral atom where the electrons equals the protons, then Sodium has 11 electrons.
In other words, sodium(Na) counts 11 protons. Electrons equivalent to protons are placed outside the nucleus in a circular shell (orbit). In other words, the atom of sodium(Na) contains eleven electrons.
How can You Find the Sodium valence electrons
Now we know how what valence electrons mean, Lets look at how many valence electrons Sodium has and how to find it.
You can determine The valence electrons by quick processes. One of them is the electron configuration. The valence electron cannot be determined without electron configuration.
When you know the electron configuration in the proper way, you can determine the valence electrons of any element easily.
Niels Bohr was the first scientist to provide a concept of the orbit of the atom. In 1913, he developed a model of the atom. There is a comprehensive understanding of the orbit.
The electrons of the atom are circular around the nucleus. These ring routes are termed orbit ( shell). These shell orbits are represented by n. [n= 1,2 3 4. .] [s]
K is the first orbit’s name, L is the second, M is the third, N is the fourth orbit’s name (shell). The capacity of the electron for each orbit is 2n2. [Or, n = 1.2 3.4. .].
N = 1 for K orbit now. The capacity of the electron K orbit is 2n2 = 2 draws 12 = 2 electrons.
N = 2 for L orbit. The electron carrying capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 alternatives to 22 = 8 electrons.
M orbit n=3. The greatest holding capacity of electrons in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 options 32 = 18 electrons.
Configuration of the electron
In addition to this approach, suborbits can be used to configure the electron. First, the German scientist Aufbau suggested a notion of electron configuration through sub-orbits.
The structure approach is to configure the electron via the sub-energy level. The ‘l’ expresses these suborbitals.
The concept of Aufbau is that the electrons in the atom complete the lower energy orbital and progressively complete the higher energy orbital. They are called s, p, d, f. The capacity of the orbital electron is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.
Valence electrons may nonetheless be easily recognized by arranging electrons in accordance with the Bohr principle. Now we learn how to determine the valence of sodium electrons (Na).
To Find the valence electrons for sodium atom, follow these four steps:
Step 1: Determine the Atomic number and number of electrons
Using the periodic table, we can find out the atomic number of sodium. We can clearly observe that the atomic number of sodium is 11 according to the periodic table. Sodium therefore contains 11 protons and 11 electrons in the nucleus.
Step 2: Write an Electron Configuration
The number of cations in Sodium (Na) is two valence electrons. The arrangement of electrons on the orbitals is referred to as electron configuration.
Since Sodium has a total of 11 electrons, you will need to place them in orbitals to get their electronic configuration.
Like we said earlier, S orbital can carry a maximum of two electrons only, then the first two electrons will move into the 1s orbital.
The next two electrons will move into 2s orbital, whereas the next six electrons will go into 2p orbital. The final step is to place the additional electrons in the 3S orbital.
And thats it, youve put Sodium into its electronic configuration! Lets move to the final step on how many valence electrons does Sodium have.
Step 3: Find the Valence Electrons
When you know the number of principal quantum numbers (n), you can locate the valence shell of an atom.
The last step is to identify valence electrons.
There are just one electron in the valence shell of sodium, thus the total number of electrons present in the valence shell of an atom is termed valence electrons. Since there is only one valence electron, sodium is an alkali metal.
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Recap: How Many Valence Electrons Does Sodium Have
Now you have learned all about Sodium valence electrons, heres all you need to recap;
- An atom’s valency represents the types of atoms it can bind with. When an atom or a free radical approaches another chemical species, Valence says the process is simple.
2. An atom’s valency is calculated by taking into account the amount of electrons lost, acquired, or shared with another atom. When its outermost shells have eight electrons, an atom is considered to be stable (except H and He).
According to this formula, a valency of 0 is achieved when the total number of electrons in outermost shells is between one to four, with a positive valency, and a valency of 8 is obtained by subtracting eight from this number, which gives a negative valency.
3. Positive and negative valency atoms contain outermost electrons with four and eight electrons respectively (i.e. noble gases).
4. Like sodium, alkali metals lost one outermost electron and therefore achieved the stable (nearest inert gas state). In order to maintain the valency of sodium (Na) at one,
5. Using a periodic table, we can determine the valency of sodium. Group 1 alkali metals usually have 1 valence electrons and since Sodium is under this group, you should also know its 1!
6. Sodium has lost one electron and has 10 electrons in the orbitals, as implied by the sodium-ion symbol. Neutral sodium has an electron configuration of (2+6=8), which makes it stable. The Na+ ion contains eight valence electrons, which means that it has lost the electrons in its outermost shell leaving 8.
7. Like noble gas, sodium has an outermost shell of eight electrons, however Na+ valency is not zero. When an electron is removed from a sodium atom, sodium ion is formed. Thus, the valency of Na+ is +1 instead of zero.
Now you know how many valence electrons does Sodium have! Do you have any questions? Feel free to drop them in the comment section below!